Do you remember playing the game "Guess a Number", where the responses
to the statement "I am thinking of a number between 1 and 100"
are "Too High", "Too Low", or "You Got It!"? A strategy that is
often used when playing this game is to divide the intervals
between the guess and the ends of the range in half. This
strategy helps you to quickly narrow in on the desired number.
When searching an array, the binary search process utilizes this same concept of splitting
intervals in half as a means of finding the "key" value
as quickly as possible.
If the array that contains your data is in order (ascending or
descending), you can search for the key item much more quickly by using a binary search algorithm ("divide
and conquer").
Consider the following array of integers:
Array of integers, named num,
arranged in "ascending order"!!
13 
24 
34 
46 
52 
63 
77 
89 
91 
100 
num[0] 
num[1] 
num[2] 
num[3] 
num[4] 
num[5] 
num[6] 
num[7] 
num[8] 
num[9] 
We will be searching for the integer 77:

First, find the middle of the array by adding the array subscript
of the first value to the subscript of the last value and dividing
by two: (0 + 9) / 2 = 4 Integer division is used to arrive at the 4th
subscript as the middle. (The actual mathematical middle would be between
the 4th and 5th subscripts, but we must work with integer subscripts.)

The 4th subscript holds the integer 52, which
comes before 77. We know that 77 will be in that portion of the array to the
right of 52. We now find the middle of the right portion of the array
by using the same approach. (5 + 9) / 2 = 7

The 7th subscript holds the integer 89, which comes after 77.
Now find the middle of the portion of the array to the right of 52, but to
the left of 89. (5 + 6) / 2 = 5

The 5th subscript holds the integer 63, which comes before 77, so we
subdivide again
(6 + 6) / 2 = 6 and
the 6th subscript holds the integer 77.
Remember:
You must start with a presorted array!!!
import java.util.Scanner;
public class BinarySearchExample
{ public static void main(String[] args) {
Scanner reply = new Scanner(System.in);
int key = 77; int[ ] num = new int [10]; // Fill the array
for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)
{
System.out.println("Enter integer: ");
num[ i ] = reply.nextInt();
}
reply.close();
// The binary search
method
binarySearch (num, 0, 9, key); } 
Binary search method:
binarySearch (num, 0, 9, key);
The
arguments/parameters are:
• array  the name of a sorted array
• lowerbound  subscript (index)
of 1^{st} element to search, array[0]
• upperbound  subscript (index)
of last element to search, array[9]
• key  item we wish to find. 

//Binary Search Method
// Method accepts a presorted array,
//
subscript of starting
element for search,
// subscript of ending element for search,
// and key number for which we are searching.
public static
void binarySearch(int[ ] array, int lowerbound, int upperbound, int key)
{
int position;
int comparisonCount = 1; // counting the number of
comparisons (optional)
// To start,
find the subscript of the middle position.
position = ( lowerbound + upperbound) / 2;
while((array[position] != key) && (lowerbound <= upperbound))
{
comparisonCount++;
if (array[position] > key)
// If the number is > key, ..
{ //
decrease position by one.
upperbound = position  1;
}
else
{
lowerbound = position + 1; // Else,
increase position by one.
}
position = (lowerbound + upperbound) / 2;
}
if (lowerbound <= upperbound)
{
System.out.println("The number was found in array subscript " + position);
System.out.println("The binary search found the number
after " +
comparisonCount +
" comparisons.");
// printing the number of
comparisons is optional
}
else
{
System.out.println("Sorry, the number is not in this array.");
System.out.print(" The
binary search made "+comparisonCount
+" comparisons.");
}
}
}
OUTPUT (after data from the table has been entered, searching for 77):
The number was found in array subscript 6
The binary search found the number after 4 comparisons. 
This
method simply prints the result of the search. You
may wish to return the result of the binary search to be
used in further investigations. To do so, return
the "position" if the value is found and return a negative number
(for example) if the result is not found.
